Obesity, increasingly prevalent, is a growing cardiovascular risk factor. It supposes a hemodynamic overload for the heart, that over time can produce anatomofunctional changes increasing the risk of arrhythmias, heart failure or cardiovascular death. The Spanish Society of Cardiology (SEC) recalls that, according to the latest National Health Survey, 37% and 17% of Spaniards are overweight and obese respectively.
For those patients with morbid obesity in whom conventional dietary treatment has not worked, bariatric surgery (which includes techniques such as the introduction of the gastric balloon, gastroplasty or gastric bypass, for example) is the most effective option. Bariatric surgery consists in reducing gastric capacity and / or interrupting the absorption of certain foods to achieve a significant reduction in weight. Therefore, researchers from the University Hospital of Getafe wanted to determine the degree of improvement in the geometric pattern and in the diastolic function of the heart of patients undergoing this type of intervention.
The study published in the Revista Española de Cardiology (REC) has analyzed the function and structure of the heart before and after six months of bariatric surgery in a total of 32 morbidly obese patients (with an average age of 45.1 years) The work concludes that, associated with the great loss of weight, this surgery supposes an improvement in the function and structure of the heart. Specifically, as regards the diastolic function of the left ventricle, it should be noted that before the intervention, only 28% of the patients had a normal filling, compared to 69% of the patients after six months of follow-up.
According to Dr. Verónica Hernández, cardiologist member of the SEC and principal investigator of the work, “the study patients, despite being young people, presented considerable changes in diastolic function, that is, in the filling function of the heart. However, through the study we observed that weight loss has a reversible effect that implies a significant improvement “.
In relation to the geometrical pattern of the heart, 71.9% of the participants presented an anomalous structure, mostly eccentric hypertrophy (40.6%), this is an increase in the heart’s mass, which translates into an increased risk of suffer heart failure, arrhythmias and death from cardiovascular disease. Six months after having undergone bariatric surgery, most patients improved their geometric pattern considerably, so that almost 60% of them had a normal structure.
“The percentage of patients who, accompanied by a weight loss, have a normal geometric pattern or improve a lot after surgery is very significant.” In fact, at six months there is no longer any with concentric hypertrophy, that is, with an increase of the mass and a thickening of the walls of the heart (the worst of the possible.) In addition, most patients go to normal geometric patterns or much less severe patterns despite not being completely normal, “says Dr. Hernandez.
How will your diet be after your surgery? Learn what foods will help you heal and lose weight safely.
The gastric bypass diet is designed to:
• Allow your stomach to heal without being stretched by the foods you eat
• Get used to eating the smallest amounts of food that your smallest stomach can digest comfortably and safely
• Help you lose weight and avoid gaining weight.
• Avoid the side effects and complications of surgery.
Details of the diet
Dietary recommendations after gastric bypass surgery vary depending on your individual situation.
A gastric bypass diet usually follows a phased approach to help you return to eating solid foods. The speed with which you move from one step to the next depends on how quickly your body heals and adapts to the change in eating patterns. Usually, you can start eating regular foods about three months after surgery.
At each stage of the gastric bypass diet, you should be careful to:
• Drink 64 ounces of fluid a day, to avoid dehydration.
• Drink fluids between meals, not with meals. Wait about 30 minutes after a meal to drink something and avoid drinking 30 minutes before a meal.
Eat and drink slowly, to avoid the dumping syndrome, which occurs when food and liquids enter your small intestine quickly and in larger amounts than usual, causing nausea, vomiting, dizziness, sweating and diarrhea.
• Eat lean and high-protein foods every day.
• Choose foods and drinks that are low in fat and sugar.
• Limit caffeine, which can cause dehydration.
• Take vitamin and mineral supplements daily as directed by your healthcare provider.
Chew the food thoroughly until you get a pure consistency before swallowing, once you advance only beyond the liquids.
During the first day or more after surgery, you will only be allowed to drink clear liquids. Once you are handling clear liquids, you can start taking other liquids, such as:
• Juice without sugar
• Tea or decaffeinated coffee
• Milk (skim or 1 percent)
• Gelatin or sugar-free pallets
• Pureed foods
After about a week of tolerating fluids, you can start eating strained and pureed foods. The food should have the consistency of a soft paste or a thick liquid, with no solid pieces of food in the mix.
You can eat three to six small meals a day.
Each meal should consist of 4 to 6 tablespoons of food. Eat slowly, approximately 30 minutes for each meal.
Choose foods that perform well, such as:
• Lean ground beef, chicken or fish
• Cottage cheese
• Soft scrambled eggs
• Cooked Cereal
• Soft fruits and cooked vegetables.
• Cream soup soups
• Mix solid foods with a liquid, such as:
• Skimmed milk
• Juice without added sugar
• Soft foods
After a few weeks of pureed food and with the approval of your doctor, you can add soft foods to your diet. They should be small pieces, tender and easy to chew.
You can eat three to five small meals a day.
Each meal should consist of one third to half a cup of food. Chew each bite until the food has a purified consistency before swallowing.
Soft foods include:
• Ground lean meat or poultry
• Fish in flakes
• Cottage cheese
• Cooked or dried cereals.
• Canned fresh fruit or without seeds or skin.
• Cooked vegetables, without skin.
• Solid food
After about eight weeks on the gastric bypass diet, you can gradually return to eating more firm foods. Start by eating three meals a day, and each meal consists of 1 to 1-1 / 2 cups of food. It is important to stop eating before you feel completely full.
Depending on how you tolerate solid foods, the number of meals and the amount of food in each meal may vary. Talk to your dietitian about what is best for you.
Try new foods one at a time. Certain foods can cause pain, nausea or vomiting after gastric bypass surgery.
Foods that can cause problems at this stage include:
• Carbonated drinks
• Raw vegetables
• Fibrous cooked vegetables, such as celery, broccoli, corn or cabbage
• Hard meats or meats with cartilage
• Red meat
• Fried food
• Very spicy or spicy foods.
• Nuts and seeds
• Over time, you may be able to try some of these foods again with the help of your doctor.